Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Promising new treatments for wet AMD and the ever evolving diagnostic imaging of the macula have enhanced our management of this disease far better than what we did a decade ago. Dry AMD often is the earlier stage of the disease that can cause either slow but progressive loss of central vision or transform into the more severe wet AMD. In wet AMD abnormal blood vessels sprout from breaches in the Bruch’s membrane (the layer behind the retina) cause oedema (water-logging), bleeding and distortion of the retinal architecture. This often results in sudden and dramatic distortion or loss of vision. Targeted treatment involving starving these vessels of their growth factors, encourages them to regress. Prevention still has a key role in patients who have dry AMD as well as in first degree relatives by focussed attention to the modifiable risk factors detailed in the “Role of Diet & Vitamin Supplements” section.